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Psychological Counselling & psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is a method of talking with a psychotherapist, psychiatrist, psychologist or professional counsellor. Many forms of psychotherapy can help people having difficulty in life, those who wish to make some kind of change in their personal or professional life, or people suffering from depression, anxiety or other serious mental health problems.

The recovery success rate for those with depression who combine psychotherapy with medication to control symptoms is more than 80 percent, according to some studies.
Although best in person, therapy is also provided on the phone, via e-mail, and online. Therapy can be held in one-on-one sessions, family or couple sessions, or in a group led by a trained counsellor.

Family therapy or couples therapy
Family therapy includes discussion and problem-solving sessions with every member of the family. Some sessions are done as a group, in couples, or one on one. Family or couples therapy is helpful when one of the family member’s physical or mental health is directly affecting family dynamics or the well-being of significant relationships. In therapy, interpersonal relationships shared among family members are examined and communication is strengthened. If a family member suffers from depression, the roles played by various family members in reinforcing the depression often are examined.

Group therapy
In group therapy, a small group of people meet regularly to discuss individual issues and help each other with problems with the guidance of a trained therapist.

Different approaches to psychotherapy
Psychotherapy is not limited to a particular type or technique. Many therapists are trained in several different approaches. They then combine techniques from these various approaches that fit their own style and personality and the needs of the patient.
Medication may be used with psychotherapy. For many people, this is the best approach to treatment. People with moderate-to-severe depression typically do best with a combination of antidepressants and some form of psychotherapy.

Caution:-Children, teens and adults being treated with antidepressants, particularly anyone being treated for depression, should be watched closely for worsening of depression and for increased suicidal thinking or behaviour. Close watching may be especially important early in treatment or when the dose is changed – either increased or decreased. Bring up your concerns immediately with a doctor.

The following are the common types of therapy available:

Behaviour therapy
Behaviour therapy, also called behaviour modification or behaviourism, sets up rewards and punishments to change thinking patterns and shape behaviour. Behavioural therapy can involve relaxation training, stress management, biofeedback and desensitization of phobias. Behavioural therapist’s help patients learn how to get more satisfaction and rewards through their own actions and how to unlearn the behavioural patterns that contribute to, or result from, their problems.

Cognitive therapy
Cognitive therapy seeks to identify and correct thinking patterns that can lead to troublesome feelings and behaviours. Beliefs and expectations are explored to identify how they shape a person’s experiences. If a thought or belief is too rigid and causes problems, the therapist helps the client to modify his or her belief so that it is less extreme.


Cognitive-behavioural therapy
Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) helps a person to recognize his or her own negative thought patterns and behaviours and to replace them with positive ones. Used both with and without medication, cognitive-behavioural therapy is the most popular and commonly used therapy for the treatment of depression. A major aim of CBT is to reduce anxiety and depression by eliminating beliefs or behaviours that help to maintain problematic emotions.
CBT generally lasts about 12 weeks and may be conducted individually or in a group. There is evidence that the beneficial effects of CBT last longer than those of medication for people with panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress syndrome and social phobia.

Gestalt
Gestalt is based on two ideas. In contrast to psychotherapy approaches which look at the unknown and even unknowable, gestalt therapists look at the here and now of living. The other idea is that we are caught in a web of relationship with all things. It is only possible to truly know ourselves as we exist in relation to other things. Behind this idea is the conviction that studying, describing and observing what is in this moment lets us fully understand ourselves.

Interpersonal therapy
Interpersonal therapy (IPT) is a short-term therapy often used to treat depression. This treatment approach focuses on an individual’s social relationships and how to improve social support. IPT therapy seeks to improve a person’s relationship skills, working on communication more effectively, expressing emotions appropriately and being properly assertive in social and work situations. In depression, IPT helps patients learn how to deal more effectively with others to reduce conflict and gain support from family and friends. It is usually conducted, like cognitive-behavioural therapy, on an individual basis but also can be used in a group therapy setting.

Movement/dance/art/music therapy
These methods include the use of movement, art or music to express emotions. This type of therapy is effective for those who have difficulty expressing feelings.

Phototherapy (light therapy)
People who suffer from seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a form of depression that is related to the change of the seasons within their geographic location, may benefit from bright light phototherapy. Phototherapy uses special light bulbs, which are much brighter than ordinary lights and made for this purpose. A physician or therapist instructs the patient in how to use these high-intensity lights to improve symptoms of seasonal depression.

Psychoanalysis
Also called psychodynamic or psychoanalytic therapy, this type of treatment helps a person look inside himself or herself to discover and understand emotional conflicts that may be contributing to emotional problems. The therapist (psychoanalyst) helps the client “uncover” unconscious motivations, unresolved problems from childhood and early patterns to resolve issues and to become aware of how those motivations influence present actions and feelings. This is a lengthy process, typically taking several years.

There are different types of psychoanalysis, each with a different focus. Freudian psychoanalysis has been criticized because of its tendency to create long-term dependent relationships between the therapist and the client. Other types of psychoanalytically oriented therapy have become popular, such as Jungian therapy. Jungian therapy sessions focus more on the immediate situation and life problems than on the root of the problem to help individuals develop greater self-realization.

Millions of Americans have found help changing some aspect of their life through psychotherapy, also known as talk therapy or counselling. Psychotherapy involves talking with a trained mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker or counsellor.
The professional helps people gain insight into their feelings, change behaviours, resolve problems or learn how to deal with feelings like stress, grief, loss, fear and sadness. Talk therapy is sometimes combined with homework assignments between sessions. Therapy can be held one-on-one, with couples, families or even in groups.

How can psychotherapy help you?
From time to time, we all experience situations where we can benefit from a trained professional. Psychotherapy is helpful with significant life changes, decisions that need to be made and difficulties at home or work.

Talk therapy is also helpful for serious problems that interfere with day-to-day life, such as physical or mental illness. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, one-third of adults in the United States have an emotional or substance abuse problem for which they need help. Also, nearly 25 percent of the adult population suffers at some point from depression or anxiety. Therapy can help depression, anxiety disorders and other emotional difficulties, either alone or in combination with medication.

The National Mental Health Association suggests psychotherapy for people when:

  • They feel an overwhelming and prolonged sense of sadness and helplessness, and they lack hope in their lives.
  • Their emotional difficulties make it hard for them to function from day to day. For example, they are unable to concentrate on assignments and their job performance suffers as a result.
  • Their actions are harmful to themselves or to others. For instance, they drink too much alcohol and become overly aggressive.
  • They are troubled by emotional difficulties facing family members or close friends.
  • They are having problems with interpersonal relationships. Talk therapy brings concrete results for many people. Research shows emotional and physical healths are closely linked and that therapy can improve a person’s overall health.
Therapy can effectively decrease depression and anxiety, and related symptoms such as pain, fatigue and nausea. More than 80 percent of people with depressive disorders improve when they receive appropriate treatment, according to the National Institute of Mental Health. 
Psychotherapy has also been found to increase survival time for heart surgery and cancer patients, and it can have a positive effect on the body’s immune system.

What happens on your first visit?
On your first visit, the mental health professional wants to get to know you and find out why you are interested in counselling. The therapist asks about your life, what you do, where you live, with whom you live and what you think the problem is. It is also common to be asked about your family and friends. This information helps the professional assess your situation and develop a plan for treatment. Psychotherapy is an active collaboration between therapist and client. It isn’t always easy. But people willing to work in close partnership with their therapist often find relief from their emotional distress and begin to lead more productive and fulfilling lives.

If you don’t feel comfortable with your therapist, talk about your feelings at your next meeting. Don’t be afraid to change to another therapist. Feeling comfortable with the professional you choose and the style of therapy is important to the success of your treatment.

When you are feeling troubled or wish to make some kind of change in your personal or professional life, seek counselling from a trained mental health professional.
Usually a therapist has an area, or areas, of specialty, such as substance abuse, depression, traumatic stress, women’s issues or men’s issues. The type or technique of counselling that a therapist provides also can vary.

Most therapists are trained in several different approaches. They then combine techniques from these various approaches that fit their own style and personality. There are also various formats in which therapy may be held — including individual, group and family psychotherapy.

How to find a therapist
Finding a qualified professional who is the right one for you may require some research. Often it is a good idea to first describe the symptoms and/or problems to your family physician or clergy. He or she can suggest the type of mental health professional that you should call.

Before making an appointment, find out about the therapist’s experience with your particular problem. Make sure you feel comfortable with the therapist’s qualifications and technique of therapy before you begin treatment.

Selecting a therapist is a highly personal matter. A professional who works well with one individual may not be a good choice for another person.

Types of mental health professionals

Psychiatrist
A psychiatrist is a medical doctor with special training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional illnesses. Like other doctors, psychiatrists are qualified to prescribe medication. 

Child/adolescent psychiatrists are medical doctors with special training in the diagnosis and treatment of emotional and behavioural problems in children. 

Psychologist
A psychologist is a counsellor with an advanced degree from an accredited graduate program in psychology, and two or more years of supervised work experience. Most states require a doctoral degree and a state license for psychologists. Psychologists are trained to make diagnoses, administer psychological testing, and provide individual and group therapy. Psychologist also consider as a Marital and family therapist. A therapist who provides marriage or family therapy with special education and training in marital and family therapy. These therapists are trained to diagnose and provide individual and group counselling specific to family and couples issues.

Some definitions

Adjustment disorders
A type of condition with emotional or behavioural symptoms that occur in response to identifiable stress in a person’s life.

Affective disorder (also called mood disorder)
A category of mental health problems that includes a disturbance in mood, usually profound sadness or apathy, euphoria or irritability, such as the disorder depression.

Agoraphobia
A Greek word that literally means “fear of the marketplace.” This anxiety disorder is characterized by a fear of open, public places or of being in crowds. Agoraphobics often experience panic attacks in a place or situation from which escape may be difficult or embarrassing.

Amnestic disorder (also called amnesia)
A brain disorder marked by memory impairment.

Anger
The experience of intense annoyance that inspires hostile and aggressive thoughts and actions.

Anorexia nervosa (also called anorexia)
An eating disorder characterized by low body weight, a distorted body image, an extreme aversion to food and an intense fear of gaining weight.

Antidepressants
Medications that treat depression, as well as other psychiatric disorders.
Caution:-Children, teens and adults being treated with antidepressants, particularly anyone being treated for depression, should be watched closely for worsening of depression and for increased suicidal thinking or behaviour. Close watching may be especially important early in treatment or when the dose is changed – either increased or decreased. Bring up your concerns immediately with a doctor.

Antisocial personality disorder
A disorder characterized by a disregard for the feelings, property, authority and respect of others, for an individual’s own personal gain. This may include violent or aggressive destructive actions toward other people, without a sense or remorse or guilt.

Anxiety
A feeling of unease and fear of impending danger characterized by physical symptoms such as rapid heart rate, sweating, trembling and feelings of stress. In contrast to fear, the danger or threat in anxiety is imagined, not real.

Anxiety disorders
Conditions characterized by high levels of anxiety. Currently five different anxiety disorders are recognized: generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post traumatic stress disorder and social phobia.

Attention-deficit disorder (ADD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A behaviour disorder, usually first diagnosed in childhood that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity and, in some cases hyperactivity.

Autistic disorder (also called autism)
A neurological and developmental disorder that usually appears during the first three years of life. A child with autism appears to live in his/her own world, demonstrating little interest in others and a lack of social awareness. The focus of an autistic child is a consistent routine and includes an interest in repeating odd and peculiar behaviours. Autistic children often have problems in communication, avoid eye contact and show limited attachment to others.

Avoidant personality disorder
People with avoidant personality disorder avoid situations with any potential for conflict or rejection and are disturbed by their own social isolation, withdrawal and inability to form close, interpersonal relationships.

Behavioural therapy
A form of psychotherapy that focuses on modifying observable problematic behaviours by manipulating the individual’s environment.

Binge eating disorder
A disorder that resembles bulimia nervosa and is characterized by episodes of excessive overeating (or bingeing). It differs from bulimia, because sufferers do not purge their bodies of the excess food, via vomiting, laxative abuse or diuretic abuse.

Bingeing
A destructive pattern of excessive overeating.

Bipolar disorder
A mood disorder (formerly called manic-depressive disorder) that is characterized by episodes of major depression and mania.

Borderline personality disorder
People with this disorder present instability in their perceptions of themselves, and have difficulty maintaining stable relationships. Moods may also be inconsistent, but never neutral — their sense of reality is always seen in “black and white.” Adults with borderline personality disorder often seek caretaking through the manipulation of others, leaving them often feeling empty, angry and abandoned, which may lead to desperate and impulsive behaviour.

Bulimia nervosa (also called bulimia)
A condition characterized by binge eating followed by extreme measures to undo the binge (often vomiting).

Child and adolescent psychiatrist
Licensed physicians who specialize in the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in children and adolescents.

Chronic
A term used to describe long-term persistence. In some mental health disorders, chronic is specified as persisting for six months or longer.

Claustrophobia
A fear of enclosed spaces.

Cognitive-behavioural therapy
A method of treating psychiatric disorders based on the idea that the way we think about the world and ourselves (our cognitions) affects our emotions and behaviour.

Cognitive disorders
The class of disorders consisting of significant impairment of cognition or memory that represents a marked deterioration from a previous level of functioning.

Cognitive therapy
A method of treating psychiatric disorders that focuses on revising a person’s thinking, perceptions, attitudes and beliefs.

Compartmentalization
A process of separating parts of the self from awareness of other parts and behaving as if one had separate sets of values. This is considered a defence mechanism.

Compensation
A process of psychologically counterbalancing perceived weaknesses by emphasizing strength in other arenas. This is considered a defence mechanism.

Compulsion
An uncontrollable, repetitive and unwanted urge to perform an act. A compulsive act is a defence against unacceptable ideas and desires, and failure to perform the act leads to anxiety.

Compulsive overeating
A tendency toward binging on large amounts of food, followed by extreme guilt.

Cyclothymia
A mood disorder of at least two years’ duration viewed as a mild variant of bipolar disorder. Cyclothymia is characterized by numerous periods of mild depressive symptoms not sufficient in duration or severity to meet the criteria for major depression interspersed with periods of hypomania.

Delirium
A condition in which changes in cognition, including a disturbance in consciousness, occur over a relatively short period of time.

Delusions
Beliefs such as delusions of grandeur that are thought to be true by the person having them, but these beliefs are wrong. People with delusions cannot be convinced that their beliefs are incorrect.

Dementia
A group of mental disorders involving a general loss of intellectual abilities, including memory, judgment and abstract thinking. Dementias may be associated with poor impulse control and personality changes.

Denial
The refusal to accept reality and to act as if a painful event, thought or feeling did not exist.

Dependent personality disorder
People with this disorder rely heavily on others for validation and fulfilment of basic needs. They often lack self-confidence, have difficulty making decisions and are unable to properly care for themselves.

Depression
A mood disturbance characterized by feelings of sadness, loneliness, despair, low self-esteem, worthlessness, withdrawal from social interaction, and sleep and eating disturbances.

Diagnosis
The determination by a health care professional of the cause of a person’s problems, usually by identifying both the disease process and the agent responsible.

Displacement
The redirecting of thoughts, feelings and impulses from a source that causes anxiety to a safer, more acceptable one.

Dyslexia
A reading disorder. A child with dyslexia reads below the expected level given his/her age, school grade and intelligence.

Dysthymia (also known as dysthymic disorder)
A mood disorder characterized by chronic mildly depressed or irritable mood often accompanied by a loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities that is present most of the time for at least two years. Many people with dysthymia experience major depressive episodes at times.

Eating disorders
Disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours and a distorted body image.

Electroconvulsive therapy
A treatment method usually reserved for very severe or psychotic depressions or manic states that often are not responsive to medication treatment. A low-voltage alternating electric current is sent to the brain on an anesthetized patient to induce a convulsion or seizure, which has a therapeutic effect.

Endorphins
Chemicals in the brain that influence moods and the experience of pain.

Euphoria
A feeling of elation that is not based on reality and is commonly exaggerated.

Factitious disorders
Conditions in which physical and/or psychological symptoms are fabricated in order to place an individual in the role of a patient or sick person in need of help.

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
A psychiatric condition in which the main symptoms are chronic worry and fear that seems to have no real cause. There may be many associated physical reactions, such as trembling, jitteriness, sweating, light-headedness and irritability.

Hallucinations
A strong perception of an event or object when no such situation is present; may occur in any of the senses (i.e., visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory or tactile).

Histrionic personality disorder
People with this disorder are overly conscious of their appearance, are constantly seeking attention, exaggerate emotions and often behave dramatically.

Hostility
The disposition to inflict harm on another person and/or the actual infliction of harm, either physically or emotionally.

Hyperventilation
Abnormally deep or rapid breathing, often seen when someone is anxious.

Hypomania
An episode of illness that resembles mania, but is less intense and less disabling. Hypomania is characterized by a euphoric mood, unrealistic optimism, increased speech and activity, and a decreased need for sleep.

Identity
Self-knowledge about one’s characteristics or personality. A sense of self.

Illusions
A false perception; the mistaking of something for what is not.

Impulse-control disorders
Disorders characterized by the inability to inhibit impulses that might be harmful to oneself or others.

Insomnia
Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep when one has the opportunity to be sleeping.

Interpersonal therapy
A form of psychotherapy that focuses on a patient’s interpersonal relationships; it may be used to treat depression.

Kleptomania
A pathological compulsion or impulse to steal.

Learning disorder
When a child’s academic ability is below what is expected for the child’s age, schooling and level of intelligence. A learning difficulty is usually identified in reading, math or writing.

Lethargy
A feeling of tiredness, drowsiness or lack of energy.

Maintenance treatment
Treatment to prevent a new mood episode, such as depression, mania or hypomania.

Major depressive disorder (also known as clinical depression)
A major mood disorder characterized by one or more (recurrent) episodes of major depression, with or without full recovery between episodes.

Mania
An episode usually seen in the course of bipolar disorder characterized by a marked increase in energy, extreme elation, impulsivity, irritability, rapid speech, nervousness, distractibility and/or poor judgment. During manic episodes, some people also experience hallucinations or delusions.

Manic depression (also known as bipolar disorder)
Classified as a type of affective disorder (or mood disorder) that goes beyond the day’s ordinary ups and downs. Manic depression is characterized by periodic episodes of extreme elation, elevated mood, or irritability (also called mania) countered by periodic, classic depressive symptoms.

Melancholy
Symptoms usually found in severe major depressive episodes, including loss of pleasure, lethargy, weight loss and insomnia.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
Drugs used in the treatment of clinical depression. These substances decrease depressive symptoms by stopping an enzyme that breaks down the mood stimulating chemicals in the brain.

Mood disorder (also known as affective disorder)
A category of mental health problems including a disturbance in mood, usually profound sadness or apathy, euphoria or irritability, such as the disorder major depression.

Narcissistic personality disorder
People with this personality disorder have severely overly inflated feelings of self-worth, grandiosity and superiority over others.

Neurotransmitters
In the brain, these chemicals transfer messages from one nerve cell to another and affect mood.

Norepinephrine
A hormone that regulates blood pressure by causing blood vessels to narrow and the heart to beat faster. It also has a role in regulating mood.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder in which a person has an unreasonable thought, fear or worry that he/she may try to manage through ritualized activity. Frequently occurring disturbing thoughts or images are called obsessions, and the rituals performed to try to prevent or dispel them are called compulsions. People with OCD often become uncomfortable in situations that are beyond their control and have difficulty maintaining positive, healthy interpersonal relationships as a result.

Panic disorder (also called panic attacks)
An anxiety disorder characterized by chronic, repeated and unexpected intense periods of fear when there is no specific cause for the fear. In between panic attacks, people with panic disorder worry excessively about when and where the next attack may occur. Panic disorder may be accompanied by agoraphobia.

Paranoid personality disorder
People with this disorder are often cold, distant and unable to form close, interpersonal relationships. Often overly suspicious of their surroundings, people with paranoid personality disorder generally cannot see their role in conflict situations and often project their feelings of paranoia as anger onto others.

Phobia
An uncontrollable, irrational and persistent fear of a specific object, situation or activity.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
A debilitating condition that is related to a past terrifying physical or emotional experience causing the person who survived the event to have persistent, frightening thoughts and memories or flashbacks, of the ordeal. People with PTSD often feel chronically emotionally numb.

Prognosis
The patient’s chances for recovery; a medical assessment of the probable course and outcome of a disease, based on the recorded history of the disease, the physician’s own experience of treating the disease, and the patient’s general condition and age.

Projection
The attribution of one’s undesired impulses onto another. This is considered a defence mechanism.

Psychiatric nurse
A nurse with special training in the treatment in patients with psychiatric disorders.

Psychiatrist
A medical doctor who specializes in the treatment of mental, emotional or behavioural problems.

Psychodynamic therapy
A branch of psychotherapy that deals with the psychology of mental or emotional forces or processes developed in early childhood and their effects on behaviour and mental states.

Psychologist
A specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional problems. Because psychologists are not physicians, they cannot prescribe drugs. Their role with patients usually involves testing, counselling and psychotherapy.

Psychosocial
Involving both psychological and social aspects or relating social conditions to mental health.

Psychotherapy
The treatment of mental and emotional disorders using psychological methods, such as talk therapy.

Purging
People with bulimia engage in a destructive pattern of ridding their bodies of the excess calories (to control their weight) by vomiting, abusing laxatives or diuretics, taking enemas and/or exercising obsessively — a process called purging.

Pyromania
A pathological compulsion to set fires.

Rage
A state of intense emotional experience associated with uncontrolled destructive behaviour.

Reaction formation
The converting of wishes or impulses that are perceived to be dangerous into opposite thoughts. This is considered a defence mechanism.

Regression
The reversion to an earlier stage of development in the face of unacceptable impulses. This is considered a defence mechanism.

Relapse
The recurrence of a disease after apparent recovery, or the return of symptoms after remission.

Remission
A return to the asymptomatic state, usually accompanied by a return to the usual level of functioning.

Repression
The blocking of unacceptable impulses from consciousness. This is considered a defence mechanism.

Schizoid personality disorder

People with this disorder are often cold, distant, introverted and have an intense fear of intimacy and closeness. They are often so absorbed in their own thinking and daydreaming that they stay detached from others and reality.

Schizophrenia
A complex mental health disorder involving a severe, chronic and disabling disturbance of the brain. The symptoms may include hallucinations, delusions and disorganized thinking.

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
A mood disorder characterized by depression related to a certain season of the year — especially winter.

Sedatives
A group of drugs used to produce sedation (calmness). Sedatives include sleeping pills and anti-anxiety drugs.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
A commonly prescribed class of drugs for treating depression. SSRIs work by stopping the reuptake of serotonin, an action that allows more serotonin to be available to be taken up by other nerves.
Caution:-The SSRI Paxil may increase the risk for birth defects, particularly heart defects, when women take it during the first three months of pregnancy, according to a 2005 advisory from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA is waiting for the results of recent studies to better understand the higher risk. Discuss with your doctor about the health risks of Paxil if you plan to become pregnant or are in the first three months of pregnancy. You may want to consider taking a different antidepressant. Do not stop taking the drug without first talking to your doctor.

Serotonin
A chemical that transmits nerve impulses in the brain (neurotransmitter) causes blood vessels to narrow at sites of bleeding and stimulates smooth muscle movement in the intestines. It is thought to be involved in controlling states of consciousness and mood.

Serotonin and norenpinephrine reuptake inhibitors
A commonly prescribed class of drugs for treating depression, which work by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine, an action that allows serotonin and norepinephrine to be available to be taken up by other nerves.

Self-esteem
Feelings about one’s self.

Social phobia
An anxiety disorder in which a person has significant anxiety and discomfort related to a fear of being embarrassed, humiliated, or scorned by others in social or performance situations.

Somatisation disorder
A chronic disorder characterized by multiple, often long-standing physical complaints such as aches and pains.

Specific phobia
A type of phobia characterized by extreme fear of an object or situation that is not harmful under normal conditions.

Sublimation
The channelling of unacceptable impulses into more acceptable outlets. This is considered a defence mechanism.

Suicidal behaviour
Actions taken by one who is considering or preparing to cause their own death.

Suicidal ideation
Thoughts of suicide or wanting to take one’s life.

Suicide
The intentional taking of one’s life.

Suicide attempt
An act focused on taking one’s life that is unsuccessful in causing death.

Supportive therapy
Psychotherapy that focuses on the management and resolution of current difficulties and life decisions using the individual’s strengths and available resources.

Symptom breakthrough
The return of symptoms in the course of either the continuation or maintenance phase treatment.

Tourette’s syndrome
A tic disorder characterized by repeated involuntary movements and uncontrollable vocal sounds. This disorder usually begins during childhood or early adolescence.

Tricotillomania
Recurrent hair pulling resulting in significant hair loss with a motivation of self-gratification or tension release.

Tricyclic antidepressants
Drugs used in the treatment of clinical depression. Tricyclic refers to the presence of three rings in the chemical structure of these drugs.

Vegetative symptoms
A group of symptoms that refer to sleep, appetite and/or weight regulation.

Managing Family Conflicts
Conflict is present in almost every family at one time or another. It’s a part of any relationship.
Some families may be more prone to conflict. Poor communication can lead to problems. Family members may also “take sides,” which can create deeper splits in the household.

Many events can create friction or add to it. A family may have trouble making adjustments after changes or differences involving:

  • The birth of a baby
  • Unemployment of one spouse
  • Financial debt
  • Problems with in-laws
  • Trying to juggle busy activity schedules
  • A serious illness of a family member
  • Separation, divorce or becoming a stepparent
If you try to ignore issues that arise, you can make things worse. Plus, if parents manage their conflicts poorly, it raises the risk that the children will have behaviour problems.

Moving forward
Whatever the cause of the disagreement, the key is to move forward with respect and understanding. Arguments can be productive if you keep them under control. Replace yelling with calm voices. No name-calling should be allowed. Explore alternative solutions and find one that is agreeable to everyone. Otherwise, the ongoing stress may affect your health and well-being.

The first step toward resolution is to decide you want to work things out in your family. Keep these tips in mind:
  • Face the issues. Explore any underlying fears if you are avoiding a conflict. Find a proper way to convey your feelings and needs. Don’t transfer your own past hurts and losses into the current conflict.
  • Take time-outs. Its okay to feel angry, but stay in control over how you display and handle your anger. If you start to feel out of control, take a time-out. Cool down and think through the situation and your actions. Remember, though, that a time-out is a chance to calm down and think about the conflict – not to exit the relationship.
  • Develop greater self-awareness. If you often fight about the same thing, take a look at the root causes. Think deeply about why you and your spouse, child or siblings are arguing about these matters. Accept your part in any conflict, and be responsible for your own actions.
  • Know your bottom line. Think about what you will and won’t negotiate. Ask yourself:
  • “If I give in, am I compromising my principles?”
  • “Am I being overly rigid or righteous?”
  • Hold family meetings. This can help each family member understand how others are feeling and thinking on different issues. You can use these meetings to make decisions and resolve conflicts.
  • Take advantage of outside resources, such as:
  • Support groups
  • Financial or legal counsellors
  • Mediators
  • Parenting classes
  • Marriage enrichment workshops
  • Individual, couple or family counsellors
It may take some trial and error to learn how to address and manage conflicts in a healthy way. Once you do, though, it can bring your family closer together.

Online & Phone Counselling

You can get the Family & Marriage Counselling through online as well as phone.
If you want to get online counselling means Please mail your problem to consult.ur.dr@gmail.comwe will respond you about the online treatment procedures through mail.
If you need phone counselling means please Send SMS ( Your name, age, sex, place and problem in single line ) to +91 97869 01830, we will fix appointment time for you and contact us at said time


Professional Secrecy will be strictly maintained

For Direct Counselling and Treatment
Please Visit

For more details Feel Free to  contact us 

Vivekanantha Homoeo Clinic & Psychological Counselling Centre
Dr.D.Senthil Kumar, B.H.M.S., M.D(Alt Med)., M.Phil(Psy)
Consulting Homoeopath & Psychologist

 

Our Clinics at

Chennai: +91 9786901830

Pondicherry (Puducherry): +91 9443054168

Panruti: +91 9786901830

 

Mail:  consult.ur.dr@gmail.comhomoeokumar@gmail.com

 

You can book Phone appointment via our

Vivekanantha Homeopathy Clinic & The “Psychologist” Counseling Center

24*7 Health Line:-  76 6720 9080

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